By Clive Wilkinson
The Royal military, popular in construction Britain's maritime empire within the eighteenth century, additionally had an important impression on politics, public finance and the executive and bureaucratic improvement of the British nation through the century. The army was once the most costly department of the kingdom and its powerful investment and upkeep used to be an issue that taxed the ingenuity of a succession of politicians, naval officials and bureaucrats. by means of the center of the century the problems its progress created had develop into serious, and the problem this offered used to be taken up via Admiralty forums led by way of Anson, Egmont, Hawke and Sandwich. Resolving those difficulties brought reform within the navy's management and in public finance (often pre-figuring later bureaucratic development), yet there has been a political cost to pay whilst the administration of the army and its obvious unpreparedness for the battle of yank Independence made the Earl of Sandwich and the military a spotlight for political competition to an unpopular govt and a disappointing battle. released in organization with the nationwide Maritime Museum. CLIVE WILKINSON is a examine officer with the Climatological Database of the World's Oceans 1750-1850, college of Sunderland.
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Extra resources for The British Navy and the State in the Eighteenth Century
459, vol. 32, p. 53. NMM: ADM B 180, 17 November, 1767. Commons Journals vol. 30, p. 488. 39 ‘TREATING THE HOUSE WITH CONTEMPT’ estimates or, as in 1763, the sum voted was applied to the payment of specific items of debt. Once the estimates had been passed and the sums voted, a Privy Seal was obtained which, with the appropriate Treasury warrant and order, established a credit at the Exchequer on which the Treasurer of the Navy drew sums to be expended under the heads of the various estimates. 17 Expense was spread throughout the year so as not to use up the Navy’s credit with the Treasury before the subsequent year’s supplies were voted.
35 Rodger, Admiralty, pp. 38–40. 36 Ehrman, William III, p. 561. 37 Duffy, Military Revolution, p. 79. Rodger, Admiralty, p. 46. 24 GOVERNMENT AND THE NAVY work of organizing and carrying out the work of the Board and the important task of co-ordinating communication between the government, the various administrative departments, and the ships at sea, became the real and necessary work of the Admiralty Office. The political expedient of making the Admiralty Board a vehicle for patronage while establishing a distinct and politically independent secretariat meant that the Admiralty Office survived, as its work, though routine, needed to be done.
This brings us to another important feature of the Navy’s civil structure – the role of the Treasury in managing the finances of the Navy and in particular the Navy’s debt. 29 The Admiralty had to be independent of the Treasury as the heads of both Boards were members of the Cabinet and at least nominally on an equal footing. Additionally, there would have been grave constitutional difficulties if the First Lord of the Treasury, controlling the public purse strings, had the power to exercise even non-operational control over military or naval forces.