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Additional info for Petroleum Engineering Handbook: Drilling Engineering Vol. 2
Overburden pressure, or Sv, is almost always equal to the weight of overlying fluids and rock. Thus, it can be calculated by integrating the density of the materials overlying the depth of interest (see Fig. 30). S v (Z o) = ∫ Zo 0 ρ b Gd z. 14) Here, G is the gravitational coefficient. The best measurement of density is derived from well logs. However, density logs are seldom acquired to ground surface or to the sea floor. If good seismic velocities are available, a velocity to density transformation can be used to estimate density where it has not been measured directly.
However, while there is clear evidence that vertically and horizontally polarized shear waves have different velocities in shales, it is rare to find an appreciable amount of azimuthal anisotropy. One exception has been in cases in which anisotropy occurs owing to oriented sets of vertical Print Search Contents Home Chapter 2 Bookmarks Help II-32 Petroleum Engineering Handbook—Vol. II SHORTMAN UTT fractures or joints. In such cases, however, it is not clear if the stress orientations are related in any way to the anisotropy because the joints may have been created in a quite different stress field than pertains at present.
2. Analyze the precise span of the wellbore’s circumference which has failed using wellbore cross sections based on the time of flight of the acoustic pulse. Print Search Contents Home Chapter 2 Bookmarks Help Chapter 1—Geomechanics Applied to Drilling Engineering II-25 SHORTMAN UTT Fig. 20—Examples of 4-arm caliper (dipmeter) logs and common interpretations of the borehole geometry. Cal 1-3 and Cal 2-4 indicate borehole diameter as measured between perpendicular dipmeter arms. A. H. Hickman, “Stress-Induced Borehole Elongation—A Comparison Between the Four-Arm Dipmeter and the Borehole Televiewer in the Auburn Geothermal Well,” J.