By Arthur L Kohl
This vastly up to date and accelerated 5th variation is the main whole, authoritative engineering remedy of the dehydration and fuel purification procedures utilized in this present day. of serious price to layout and operations engineers, it supplies sensible approach and gear layout descriptions, uncomplicated information, plant functionality effects, and different distinct details on gasoline purification approaches and undefined. This newest version accommodates all major advances within the box for the reason that 1985.
you'll find significant new chapters at the quickly increasing applied sciences of nitrogen oxide keep an eye on, with discussions of regulatory necessities and to be had techniques; absorption in actual solvents, overlaying unmarried part and combined solvent platforms; and membrane permeation, with emphasis at the fuel purification purposes of membrane devices. moreover, new sections disguise parts of robust present curiosity, relatively liquid hydrocarbon treating, Claus plant tail gasoline treating, thermal oxidation of risky natural compounds, and sulfur scavenging processes.
This quantity brings you improved assurance of alkanolamines for hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removing, the removing and use of ammonia in fuel purification, using alkaline salt recommendations for acid fuel removing, and using water to take in fuel impurities. the elemental applied sciences and all major advances within the following parts are completely defined: sulfur dioxide elimination and restoration tactics, methods for changing hydrogen sulfide to sulfur, liquid part oxidation techniques for hydrogen sulfide removing, the absorption of water vapor by means of dehydrating ideas, gasoline dehydration and purification via adsorption, and the catalytic and thermal conversion of fuel impurities.
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Hausch, G. , and Petschauer, F. C. Based Packed Tower Design Program,” presented at the AIChE Summer National Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA, Aug. 20. Hughmark, G. , and O’Connell, H. , 1957, Chem. Eng. , Vol. 53, No. 3, March, p. 127. , 1990, General Catalog 100, JPlY90 5M. Jeronimo, M. A. , 1973, Trans. Znst. Chem. Engineers, (London), Vol. 51, p. 265. Joshi, S . , and Savage, D. , 1981, Transport with Chemical Reactions, AZChE Symposium Series No. 202, Vol. 77, p. 63. Kessler, D. , and Wankat, P. , 1988, Chem.
1978, “Absorption” in Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. , Wiley, NY. h National AIChE Meeting, Symp. 44,Houston, TX, April. Zenz, F. , 1979, “Design of Gas Absorption Towers,” Sect. A. , McGraw-Hill, NY. Zuiderweg, F. , 1982, Chem. Eng. , Review Article No. 9, Vol. 37, No. 10, p. 1441. Chapter 2 Alkanolamines for Hydrogen Sulfide and BACKGROUND, 41 BASIC CHEMISTRY, 42 SELECTION OF PROCESS SOLUTION, 48 Monoethanolamine, 49 Monoethanolamine-Glycol Mixtures, 50 Diethanolamine,50 Diglycolamine, 51 Diisopropanolamine, 53 Methyldiethanolamine,53 Mixed Amines, 54 Sterically Hindered Amines, 56 Amine Concentration, 56 FLOW SYSTEMS, 57 Basic Flow Scheme, 57 Water Wash for Amine Recovery, 58 Split-Stream Cycles, 59 Cocurrent Absorption, 60 DESIGN DATA, 62 Acid Gas-Amine Solution Equilibria, 62 Amine Solution Vapor Pressures, 91 Heats of Reaction, 91 Physical Properties, 98 40 Alkanolarninesfor Hydrogen Surfide and Carbon Dioxide Removal 41 PROCESS DESIGN, 103 Design Approach, 103 Computer Programs, 110 Tray Versus Packed Columns, 111 Column Diameter, 112 Column Height, 113 Absorber Thermal Effects, 120 Stripping System Performance, 123 Simplified Design Procedure, 133 Commercial Plant Operating Data, 144 Organic Sulfur Removal by Amine Solutions, 151 AMINE TREATMENT OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS, 156 Process Description, 156 Design Data, 157 LPG Treater Operating Conditions, 165 Amine Solution Flow Rates and Composition, 165 Absorber Designs, 166 Auxiliary Systems, 171 Removal of COS from LPG by Amines, 173 REFERENCES, 174 BACKGROUND Credit for the development of alkanolamines as absorbents for acidic gases goes to R.
1938), Elgin and Weiss (1939), Lobo et al. (1945), Ekkert (197OA, 1975), Kister and Gill (1991), Robbins (1991), and Leva (1992). According to Fair (1990), the currently used correlation for packed tower pressure drop prediction--commonly called the Generalized Pressure Drop Correlation (GPDCjshould be attributed to Leva (1954). Other investigators have developed minor improvements. A generalized carelation for estimating pressure drop in structured packings is presented by Bravo et al. (1986).