# Frege and Other Philosophers by Michael Dummett

By Michael Dummett

This publication includes all of Dummett's released and formerly unpublished essays on Gottlob Frege, aside from these integrated in his fact and different Enigmas. In a few of these essays he explores the relation of Frege's principles to these of his predecessors and contemporaries. In others he considers significantly a few interpretations of Frege, and develops the argument for a legitimate knowing of Frege's notion. numerous of the essays illustrate his competition that Frege's paintings is still the easiest start line for the research of difficulties referring to fact, that means, and idea and language, that are nonetheless one of the such a lot contentious concerns in glossy analytical philosophy.

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Exactly the same perplexity arises over Frege's sketchy discussion of the introduction of complex numbers, and here he expressly evokes it. In §101 he says of the symbol i for the square root of − 1: One is tempted to conclude: it is indifferent whether i refers to one second, one millimetre or anything else whatever, provided only that our laws of addition and multiplication hold good. Everything depends on that: about the rest we do not need to worry. And he replies: One may perhaps be able to lay down the meaning of ‗a + bi‘, of the operations of sum and product, in different ways, so that in each case those laws will continue to hold good; but it is not indifferent whether we can find at least one such sense for these expressions.

X, y be elements of G with 1 < x ≤ y. If z: = xyx−1y−1 then z and z−1 are comparable. Moreover, if t: = max (z, z−1) then 1 ≤ t < y. 2 may be applied. To prove the theorem, it may be shown by induction on n that, for any x, y, and t for every integer n ≥ 0. It follows by the archimedean condition that, if t satisfies the antecedent, then t = 1, and hence that x and y commute. Since this holds for any two positive elements, and the positive elements generate the group G, G must be abelian. Given the commutative law, (4) is a trivial consequence of (3), and hence < is linear: (a) & (e) (b), whence (a) & (f) (b).

Carries a linear order that is both right- and left-invariant, has been known for many years (see L. Fuchs, Partially Ordered Algebraic Systems, pp. 47–50). Moreover, any such ordering of a group with trivial centre, such as the free group of rank 2, will be dense: for if 1 x, there exists y such that xy ≠ yx, and hence either 1 y−1 xy x or 1 yxy−1 x. The construction described by Fuchs (p. 48) can be adjusted to ensure that (iii) and (iv) hold; there is a special reason, stated below, for including clause (iv).