By S. Varro
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This booklet bargains with the modern improvement of quantum idea from the viewpoint of quantum optics. the basics of quantum concept are awarded, with specific recognition being given to the quantum concept of dimension. normal coherent states are followed because the most vital theoretical device for the outline of the interplay of optical fields with subject.
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Coherence length and spikes distribution Dealing with a partially chaotic phenomenon, we should also define a probability distribution of the energy of these spikes : P( E ) MM E x M 1 e Mx , x ( M 1) E Such distributions are shown in Fig. 32. it is obvious that, when the number of supermodes 1 increases, the distribution narrows and the average quadratic deviation is E M Introduction to the Physics of Free Electron Laser and Comparison with Conventional Laser Sources 33 Fig. 31.
While conventional synchrotron light sources use the simple principle of spontaneous emission, SASE FEL are based on stimulated emission which guarantees a photon gain Lu of G 91 e u 4 3 , with Lu N u the undulator length. Assuming N 1, one gets that with respect to the conventional sources, the photon flux is higher by roughly eight orders of magnitude. 36 2. Free Electron Lasers The conventional sources use electron beams accelerated in a storage ring, while SASE FEL use an electron beam accelerated in a LINAC (linear accelerator) of high energy.
This volume is the emittance of the particle ensemble. In its more general sense, Liouville’s theorem applies to Hamiltonian systems in which the forces can be derived from a potential that may be time dependent, but must not depend on the particles’ momentum. Thus, the following collective phenomena limit the applicability of the Liouville’s theorem to particles motion in an accelerator: collisions, space charge forces – intended as short-range inter-particle Coulomb interactions –, wake ﬁelds, electromagnetic radiation emission and absorption.