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Language description enriches linguistic thought and linguistic idea sharpens language description. according to this assumption, the quantity provides theoretical and empirical reports that discover the explanatory strength of functional-typological linguistics for the research of the world's languages.
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Extra resources for Form and Function in Language Research: Papers in Honour of Christian Lehmann
G. Givón 1975: 96; Bybee et al. 1994: 21; Dahl 2001: 126; Haspelmath 1999: 1050). e. g. Campbell 2001: 123; Newmeyer 2001: 193). Irrespective of the theoretical framework that is taken as a point of departure, and the type of questions one wants to answer in relation to diachronic changes in person forms, comparisons have to be made between the respective forms within and across languages. For that purpose, a calculus is needed with which to determine and compare the amount of coding in person forms for the respective semantic dimensions.
We will consider this form to belong to plural number in case there is such a paradigm. The third pattern labelled ‘only inclusive’ (abbreviated ‘only incl’) is used for paradigms in which there is a special form for 1+2 together with 1+2+3 but not for the exclusive 1+3. An example of such a paradigm is given in (20) from Chalcatongo Mixtec, a language spoken in south-central Mexico, in which this pattern occurs both in the independent person forms and the corresponding Subject clitics. (20) Chalcatongo Mixtec (Macaulay 1996: 139) 1 rú÷ú 1+2 žó÷ó 2 ró÷ó 1+2+3 žó÷ó 3M càà 3F nā÷ā 3 ANML kìtì 3 SUPNAT í÷a, íža The fourth pattern called ‘minimal inclusive’ (‘min incl’) denotes paradigms such as the one in (21) from the Austronesian language Uma spoken in Sulawesi.
Table 1. 0 In sections 2 through 5 we presented a calculus for determining the weights of the respective semantic dimensions. It may be applied to any person form in a language, both free and bound. In order to compare languages, however, one has to decide which paradigms to select for such comparison. Weighing semantic distinctions in person forms 47 Different routes may be taken here. For example, in the case of the free person markers, one may take a specific form, such as the nominative, or the mean weight over all different forms.