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Additional info for Food Carbohydrate Chemistry (Institute of Food Technologists Series)
11 Si CH3 CH3 Trimethylsilyl-2,3,4,6-O-tetra-trimethylsilyl-␤-D-glucopyranoside All hydroxyl groups of sugars must be substituted with trimethylsilyl groups in order for the sugar to have sufficient volatility for gas-liquid chromatographic analysis. Sugar hydroxyls can combine with organic and inorganic acids to form sugar esters. Sugar acetates and succinates occur in nature, and sugar phosphates are important metabolic intermediates. Sucrose polyester (trade name OlestraTM ) is an approved food additive in which sucrose is fully esterified with fatty acids.
3). Hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage in reducing and nonreducing sugars is catalyzed by protonation of the exocyclic OR group. A carbonium ion is formed that abstracts a hydroxyl group from water to form free sugars (Wong 1989). 8 Hydrolysis rates are predictable with furanose linkages being hydrolyzed much faster than pyranose linkages. ␣-Glycosidic linkages are hydrolyzed faster than ␤. Hydrolysis rates of glycosidic linkages occur in the following decreasing order: 1-2 > 1-3 > 1-4 > 1-6.
Code of Federal Regulations. 2010. 30: Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. com/vid/101-percentage-juice-purporting -contain-19705632. Accessed October 18, 2010. Dillon A. 1995. Appendix II: Fruit juice profiles. In: Nagy S, Wade RL, editors. Methods to detect adulteration of fruit juice beverages, volume I. Auburndale, FL: AgScience, pp. 359–438. Durst RW, Wrolstad RE, Krueger DA. 1995. Sugar, nonvolatile acid, 13 C/12 C ratio, and mineral analysis for determination of the authenticity and quality of red raspberry juice composition.