By John W. Tukey
The technique during this introductory publication is that of casual research of the information. tools variety from plotting picture-drawing strategies to particularly complicated numerical summaries. numerous of the tools are the unique creations of the writer, and all may be performed both with pencil or aided by means of hand held calculator.
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Additional resources for Exploratory Data Analysis
It will be good to do this in terms of a few numbers that are easily understood, and to agree on what these numbers are, what they are called, how they are marked, how they are routinely written down, and how they are usefully and easily shown graphically! To do this well, we must limit our objectives. It would be wrong to expect a standard summary to reveal the unusual--no matter how important the unusual may be when it occurs. Things like the separation of the pattern into groupings-- illustrated by exhibit 10 of chapter l--ought not to show in an easy summary of routine form.
If we have 13 values, the 7th will be the median--and the 4th from each end a hinge. 8, one at each folding point. 8 where we have shown the count (marked #), the depth of the median (marked M), the depth of the hinges (marked H), and the depth of the extremes (always 1; needs no other mark) to the left of an inverted-U enclosure, and have written the corresponding values in the enclosure. We put the median in the middle, the upper values on one side, and the lower values on the other (which is which does not matter, and can change from time to time and from person to person).
Often, as in this example, the numbers tend to pile up on--and just after--each "l"--an example of what is sometimes called the "abnormal law of large numbers". exhibit 7 of chapter 1: arbitrary example Mixed-leaf stem-and-Ieaf applied to 25 values, some trailing Al THE VALUES 5, -52, -27, -83, 8, -14, -122, -110,112,58, -119,33,18, -52, -19, 12, -82,14, 25, -182, -40, 64, -56, 5, 13. J) pI PROBLEMS 7a) Make a "for looking at" stem-and-Ieaf of the same data. 7b) Make a stem-and-Ieaf of the same data using only one size of leaves.