Engineering handbook for HVAC
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Additional resources for Engineering Manual of Automatic Control (for Commercial Buildings, Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning)
ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL Figure 54 shows a pneumatic actuator controlling a valve. As air pressure in the actuator chamber increases, the downward force (F1) increases, overcoming the spring compression force (F2), and forcing the diaphragm downward. The downward movement of the diaphragm starts to close the valve. The valve thus reduces the flow in some proportion to the air pressure applied by the actuator. The valve in Figure 54 is fully open with zero air pressure and the assembly is therefore normally open.
Slight variations in the rate of feed or rate of heat supply show up immediately as fluctuations in the temperature of the liquid leaving the exchanger. Consequently, the process in Figure 45 does not have a stabilizing influence but can respond quickly to load changes. The difference between repeatability and static error is that repeatability is the ability to return to a specific condition, whereas static error is a constant deviation from that condition. , sensor error) does not interfere with the ability to control, but requires that the control point be shifted to compensate and maintain a desired value.
HEATING MEDIUM OUT LIQUID OUT C2076 Fig. 45. Typical Process with Small Thermal Capacitance. Figure 46 shows supply capacitance in a steam-to-water converter. When the load on the system (in Figure 44, cold air) increases, air leaving the heating coil is cooler. The controller senses the drop in temperature and calls for more steam to the converter. If the water side of the converter is large, it takes longer for the temperature of the supply water to rise than if the converter is small because a load change in a process with a large supply capacitance requires more time to change the variable to a new value.