By Akio Yoshimori (auth.), Kenzi Tamaru (eds.)
When we see a jumbo jet on the airport, we occasionally ask yourself how this kind of large, heavy aircraft can fly excessive within the sky. To the level that we predict in a static means, it truly is on no account comprehensible. In this type of demeanour, dynamics yields habit really diversified from statics. once we are looking to arrange an iron nitride, for instance, essentially the most orthodox methods is to place iron in a nitrogen surroundings below pressures better than the dissociation strain of the iron nitride at temperatures sufficiently excessive to permit the nitrogen penetrate into the majority iron. this is often the way in which thermodynamics tells us to continue, which calls for an complex, pricey high-pressure equipment, refined options, and nice efforts. even though, if we circulate ammonia over the iron, even less than low pressures, we will be able to simply arrange the nitride-provided the hydrogen strain is adequately low. because the nitrogen desorption price is the picking step of the ammonia decomposition at the iron floor, the digital strain of nitrogen on the floor can achieve an incredibly excessive point (as is mostly authorized) simply because, in this kind of dynamic method, the motive force of the ammonia decomposition response pushes the nitrogen into the majority iron to shape the nitride. therefore, dynamics is an process significantly diversified from statics.
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29b). The above relation between the desorption rate and the sticking coefficient is just the detailed balance condition. 42 MASARU TSUKADA The theory of desorption and sticking has been developed also in the framework of quantum mechanics. The master equation is formulated for the random walk over the vibrational ladder in the potential well including the transition to the free states. 6. 4. EFFECT OF THE MEDIUM ON THE NONADIABATIC PROCESSES Many interesting phenomena on surfaces are described as dynamics over several potential surfaces, where the nonadiabatic level crossing behavior is the most significant issue.
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