By Howard B. Kaplan (auth.), Howard B. Kaplan (eds.)
This quantity brings jointly a pattern of the easiest of the stories that illustrate contemporary developments in learn on deviant habit. the 1st of those traits is the research of deviant habit in longitudinal viewpoint. Panels of matters are over lengthy sessions of time to set up temporal relationships be tween deviant habit and the antecedents and results of deviant behav ior. the second one development in modern examine on deviance is the popularity of the organization between types of deviant habit similar to violence, drug abuse, and robbery. the popularity of the covariation between sorts of deviance motivated questions concerning the nature of the relationships between a number of kinds of de viance. Is one type of deviant habit a reason or a final result of alternative sorts of deviant habit? What variables mediate and reasonable such causal relation ships? Do various different types of deviant habit have universal antecedents and results? self sustaining of the foregoing relationships, do specific types of deviant habit have designated antecedents and outcomes? The 8 unique study experiences that, in addition to the advent and evaluation, represent this quantity are in accordance with info drawn from one of the so much influential longitudinal stories within the common quarter of deviant habit. those reports variously ponder universal and pattern-specific antecedents and conse quences, reciprocal affects, and intervening and moderating variables in causal relationships between drug use, crime, and other kinds of deviance.
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Additional info for Drugs, Crime, and Other Deviant Adaptations: Longitudinal Studies
A number of factors influence opportunities to perform deviant behaviors, including generality of deviant dispositions and involvement in the conventional order. Generality of Deviant Dispositions. The range of opportunities that are available to the person who is motivated to perform acts defined as deviant depends in part on how general or specific the person's motives are. A person may be motivated to perform any of a range of illicit acts simply because they are illegal. The motive may stem from a history of experiences of failure and being rejected in the conventional world and from the consequent rejection of conventional morals.
Depression is associated with use of violence among urban black adolescents (DuRant, Cadenhead, Pendergrast, Slavens, & Lindner, 1994). For a population of pregnant adolescents (Amaro & Zuckerman, 1991), compared to non-drug users, pregnant adolescents who use drugs are more likely to have a history of elective abortion and venereal diseases, to report more negative life events in the previous year, to experience violence during pregnancy, and to have a male partner who used marijuana or cocaine.
Drug abuse affects clinical depression either through the toxic effects of the drug or through the dysphoria induced by withdrawal. The linkage between cocaine use and depression may be mediated by the effects of cocaine on dopamine receptors in the central nervous system (Hyman & Nestler, 1993). By way of further illustration, the relationship between being overweight and depression is explained in part by the negative association between being overweight and perceived physical health and the negative association between physical health and depression (Ross, 1994).