By Francois Recanati
This quantity places ahead a unique new concept of direct reference, mixing insights from either the Fregean and the Russellian traditions, and becoming the final idea of language figuring out utilized by these engaged on the pragmatics of common language
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Extra resources for Direct Reference: From Language to Thought
Now there are various criteria of identity depending on the sort of object we are talking about. The criterion for individuating water is not the same as that for individuating rivers; the criterion for individuating persons is not the same as the criterion for individuating material objects in general; the criterion for individuating pieces of clay is not the same as that for individuating statues, and so forth. g. the same man' ( Geach, 1 957, p. 6 9 ) . Identity entails sameness, and sameness 'has no significance unless we say or mean "the same X", where " X " represents a general term .
The utterance, by virtue of its linguistic meaning, gives indications concerning its truth-condition; it presents its truth-condition in a certain way. For example, directly referential terms convey a semantic feature, REF, by virtue of which they Singular propositions and thoughts 27 indicate that the truth-condition of the utterance in which they occur is singular; they indicate that there is an object (the reference of the singular term) such that the utterance is true iff that object satisfies the predicate.
A large part of this book will be devoted to that study. This issue of the relations between semantics and psychology introduces us to what is in fact the main topic of chapters 2 and 3 . The study o f direct reference has recently been a battleground between two groups of philosophers, who may conveniently be referred to as the neo-Russellians and the neo-Fregeans. An argu ment often used by the neo-Fregeans against their neo-Russellian colleagues is that the neo-Russellian picture, with its 'singular propositions' including the reference but no mode of presentation of the latter, has no psychological credibility.