By Harry G. Byars
This bestseller is written for those that usually are not corrosion experts, yet who've an curiosity and/or accountability for corrosion keep watch over in oil and fuel creation operations. The publication includes eleven chapters that include details on corrosion fundamentals, varieties of corrosion, fabrics choice, protecting coatings, cathodic security, chemical therapy, keep watch over of the corrosive surroundings, corrosion detection, and keep watch over tracking.
desk of Contents
2. Corrosion fundamentals
three. different types of Corrosion (Types of Corrosion)
four. fabrics choice - Metals
five. fabrics choice - Nonmetallics
6. protecting Coatings
7. Cathodic safeguard
eight. Chemical therapy
nine. keep an eye on of the Corrosive surroundings
10. Corrosion Detection and keep watch over tracking
eleven. Corrosion keep an eye on courses and Economics
Read Online or Download Corrosion Control in Petroleum Production - TPC Publication 5 PDF
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Extra resources for Corrosion Control in Petroleum Production - TPC Publication 5
Oxygen is less soluble in salt water than in fresh water. Appendix 2A presents oxygen solubility data and calculation methods for fresh water and for seawaters of various chloride contents at various temperatures3 Similar data for very heavy brines indicates ambient temperature oxygen saturation as low as 2 t o 3 ppm. Oxygen accelerates corrosion under most circumstances. It is a strong and rapid oxidizing agent in cathodic reactions (that is, it provides a high electrochemical potential). Thus, oxygen will easily combine with electrons at the cathode and allow the corrosion reaction to continue at a rate limited primarily by the rate at which oxygen can reach the cathode.
7. C. Adams, J. D. Garber, R. K. Singh, "Computer Modeling to Predict Corrosion Rates in Gas Condensate Wells Containing COz," CORROSION/96, paper no. 31 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1996). 8. NACE Standard MR0175 (latest edition), "Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials of Oilfield Equipment" (Houston, TX: NACE). 9. R. E. Tatnall, "Introduction," in A Practical Manual on Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion, ed. G. Korbin (Houston, TX: NACE, 1993): p. 6. 10. G. L. Horacek, E. S. Littrnann, R.
The chemical reaction for the corrosion of iron is: Fe Iron atom - - Fe2+ + 2eiron ion (ferrous) + (1) electrons The iron ion goes into solution, and two electrons are left behind in the metal. The iron in solution can react with other ions to form corrosion products (such as iron oxide, iron sulfide, iron carbonate, or iron chloride). The electrons from the anode travel through the metal to the cathodic area. At the cathodic area, the electrons, which carry a negative charge, react with ions in the water that carry a positive charge.