By Terence Tsai (auth.)
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Extra resources for Corporate Environmentalism in China and Taiwan
Hunt and Auster (1990) adopted four main evaluative criteria: (a) degree to which programme reduces environmental risk, (b) commitment of organisation, (c) programme design, and (d) involvement with legal counsel, public relations, manufacturing/production and product design. Roome (1992) differed from the aforementioned models by using ‘standards of compliance with legal requirements and responses to social pressures’ in the ﬁrst three stages of his model and then added ‘operating to standards of managerial excellence and state-of-the-art environmental management, as practised by the leading edge companies in their sectors’ in his last two stages.
In extreme cases, securing the legitimacy to remain in business may largely depend upon a corporation’s ability to conform to the superior environmental standards implemented by such leading edge companies. In developing countries, where environmental protection is in the budding stage, governments frequently utilises large, reputable corporations such as Dow Chemicals, ICI and Du Pont’s codes of environmental protection conduct as examples on which to base regulation (Tsai and Child 1997). This propagates the belief in mimicry and normative conformity even further.
Manipulate – Co-opt (importing inﬂuential constituents) Inﬂuence (shaping values and criteria) Control (dominating institutional constituents and processes) Oliver’s scheme does not, however, include the co-operative strategic response to which we just drew attention. This might be added as option F in her scheme, and involves joint problem solving, and even a willingness to integrate objectives, as indicative behaviours. 3 below, Kirchgeorg (1993) includes co-operation as a form of implementing an environmental strategy designed to achieve adaptation.