By Martin Haspelmath, Ekkehard König
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Additional info for Converbs in Cross-Linguistic Perspective
Indd 35 2/19/2011 6:22:18 PM 36 (47) a. b. c. d. Georgia M. Green [What they will say]i is hard to know ___ i. Hei is easy to please ___ i. (tough-complements) Ii am available to dance with ___ i. (purpose infinitives) I gave it to the mani Dana thinks ___ i is French. (bare relative clauses) In weak extraction cases like tough-constructions, a head of the relevant class selects a complement with a non-null slash specification, as shown in (46); this entails that the complement or some descendent of it will not be lexically realized.
Finally, lexical rules can define both an inflection and a derived subcategorization. For example, Sag and Wasow’s (1999) passive lexical rule states a correspondence between verb lexemes whose comps list has at least one argument-saturated nominal synsem on it, and words where an argument-saturated nominal synsem with those specifications is the the sole member of the subj list, and is absent from the comps list, which may have a synsem for an (oblique) by-phrase on it whose NP object has the same index as the argument-saturated nominal synsem on the subj list of the source lexeme, as shown in (26).
Okrai, I don’t know the client who likes ___ i. In addition, some sort of Sentential Subject Condition seems to be required to exclude gaps in clausal subjects. In fact, it is not just clausal subjects that prohibit gaps in subject position: all subject phrases headed by verbs or complementizers (verbals in Sag 1997) display the same property, and the same property holds for gerundive NPs: (70) a. b. c. d. *Lou, to argue with ___ makes me sick. *Lou, that Terry argued with ___ irritated everyone.