By Brian MacWhinney
This quantity examines the conflicting elements that form the content material and kind of grammatical ideas in language utilization. audio system and addressees have to cope with those ideas whilst expressing themselves and while attempting to understand messages. for instance, there are on-going competitions among the speaker's pursuits and the addressee's wishes, or among constraints imposed by means of grammar and people imposed via on-line processing. those competitions impression a wide selection of structures, together with case marking, contract and notice order, politeness types, lexical offerings, and the location of relative clauses.
Chapters within the publication examine grammar and utilization in grownup language in addition to first and moment language acquisition, and the motivations that force historic swap. numerous of the chapters search factors for the competitions concerned, in response to previous money owed together with the contest version, typical Morphology, the functional-typological culture, and Optimality thought. The ebook might be of curiosity to linguists from a large choice of backgrounds, fairly these drawn to psycholinguistics, historic linguistics, philosophy of language, and language acquisition, from complex undergraduate point upwards.
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Extra resources for Competing Motivations in Grammar and Usage
This is also Malchukov’s position (2010: esp. 155–9), according to which use and acquisition act as ﬁlters on the evolution of structures. ” This takes us to the immediate source of competing motivations. The term “competition” requires a process and historical change is indeed a process, but the term “motivation” cannot directly apply to historical change since it implies individuals who are motivated and who make (largely unintended) choices among the motivations. Thus, the ultimate locus of competing motivations must be individual minds: the mind of the language learner and the mind of the language user, which then trigger communal effects resulting in language change (cf.
How weight and discourse factors combine to predict relative clause extraposition in English,” Elaine J. Francis and Laura A. Michaelis take up relative clause extraposition (RCE) in English—that is, sentences where a subject-modifying relative clause appears after the verb phrase, as in Some research has been conducted that supports the existing theory. Previous studies have revealed that both grammatical weight and discourse factors induce speakers to resort to RCE. However, this study is the ﬁrst to examine the details of the interaction between the two.
E-nu. ’ 4 Maybe, more correctly, it should be formulated as a dispreference for ergative alignment, as some authors prefer to speak of an active–stative preference of imperatives (cf. Donohue 2008). 5 Dixon (1994: 101) also mentions languages like Sumerian and Päri, where only imperatives show accusative alignment in contrast to other moods with ergative alignment, as evidence for the accusative preference. See also Malchukov and de Hoop 2011 for a recent discussion of TAM-based splits from an Optimality-Theoretic perspective.