By Janis Bell
This isn't a finished monitoring of each nut and bolt that ever got here unfastened inside an English sentence; it's a concentrated dialogue of the slender variety of difficulties that American writers ordinarily face. From confusion over grammar to tangles with utilization, to questions about punctuation, Janis Bell addresses them with transparency and style. She discusses the problems, provides lots of examples, offers quizzes and solutions, and makes certain that readers are engaged all through.
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Extra resources for Clean, Well-Lighted Sentences: A Guide to Avoiding the Most Common Errors in Grammar and Punctuation
The processing problem aside, (35a–b) indicate that a causative a‰x can be embedded. In contrast, the T a‰x cannot be embedded, since VI is never reported to allow the verb root to carry its own T. Another facet of the lexical-functional di¤erence in morphology is that the verbal a‰xes that trigger VI are characteristically limited to causatives, modals, and certain aspectual words. This would be unexpected if all it takes in VI is for the embedded verb to raise through the embedded T (and C) to the matrix verb.
B. Sam gave a lot of money (to the company). In (29a), the demoted thematic subject is introduced by a preposition and is optional. 2); but once it is demoted, it is introduced by a preposition, to, and becomes optional. Whatever is the reason for this cluster of properties, it is clear that the embedded subject in Chichewa causatives patterns with the parenthesized NPs in (29): it is introduced with an oblique Case and is optional, both traits presumably resulting from demotion in a structure like (26).
The (a) examples are the base forms. The applicative a‰x helps introduce an extra NP argument, shown in (45b–e) and (46b), which at least in some languages can be optionally interpreted as Benefactive, Instrument, Locative, or Causer, depending on the verb root and/or the context (Bresnan and Moshi 1993). An obvious property of the applicative a‰x is its location in the verbal complex—after the verb root but before the word-ﬁnal morpheme (-a in (45) and -’ in (46)), which has been treated as serving aspectual functions by some scholars but simply marked as a ﬁnal vowel (fv) by others.