By Raymond Chang
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Additional info for Chemistry, Tenth Edition
81 3 10 22 Multiplication and Division To multiply numbers expressed in scientific notation, we multiply N1 and N2 in the usual way, but add the exponents together. To divide using scientific notation, we divide N1 and N2 as usual and subtract the exponents. 7 3 1025 Significant Figures Except when all the numbers involved are integers (for example, in counting the number of students in a class), it is often impossible to obtain the exact value of the quantity under investigation. For this reason, it is important to indicate the margin of error in a measurement by clearly indicating the number of significant figures, which are the meaningful digits in a measured or calculated quantity.
72 × 10–6 Here the decimal point is moved to the right by six places and n = –6. 8 Handling Numbers Keep in mind the following two points. First, n = 0 is used for numbers that are not expressed in scientific notation. 6. Second, the usual practice is to omit the superscript when n = 1. 46 × 101. Next, we consider how scientific notation is handled in arithmetic operations. Addition and Subtraction To add or subtract using scientific notation, we first write each quantity—say N1 and N2—with the same exponent n.
For the future, scientists have begun to explore the prospect of “molecular computing,” that is, replacing silicon with molecules. The advantages are that certain molecules can be made to respond to light, rather than to electrons, so that we would have optical computers rather than electronic computers. With proper genetic engineering, scientists can synthesize such molecules using microorganisms instead of large factories. Optical computers also would have much greater storage capacity than electronic computers.