By Harry Frampton, Henry A Craddock, Jack Dunlop, Paul Reid, Graham Payne, Terry Balson, Ruth M Lane, D R Karsa
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Additional resources for Chemistry in the Oil Industry VII
This would at least quantify the uncertainties associated with the assumptions made in the CHARM model and allow a more informed decision on whether a hazard based approach was justified. This is both costly and time consuming, but from an industry perspective important. Otherwise CHARM in hazard ranking mode coupled with the precautionary principle, may eliminate the use of some of the most effective chemicals, or at best require their replacement with others of lower hazard ranking, but with no demonstrable benefit to the aquatic environment.
CHARM will not cover the potential harm during the production and transport of chemicals or the handling of unused remainders. e. the North and Norwegian Seas. Potential air pollution problems and human health problems are not within the scope of CHARM. In principle CHARM can handle more or less complete datasets. e. g. in a closed system. The user has also to define the basis for decisions to be made on the results of CHARM, as it is a decision support tool and not a decision imposing method. The CHARM method enables a stepwise evaluation of E & P production chemicals by means of a successive pre-screening - hazard assessment -risk analysis - risk management.
The data will be entered into a database which the Danish EPA have access to. Products currently in use must be reregistered over the next three years on a prioritised basis. For the environmental testing, Denmark is the most strict on requiring toxicity data at the substance level. This has huge cost implications. The testing cost for a demulsifier comprising four component substances would be nearly &20,000. The chemical supplier will also give an HOCNF with generic composition to the Operating Company.