By Gonul Kaletunc, Kenneth J. Breslauer
Characterization of Cereals and Flours is a cutting-edge reference that info the newest advances to represent the results of producing tactics and garage stipulations at the thermal, mechanical, and structural houses of cereal flours and their items - reading the impact of moisture absorption, garage temperature, baking, and extrusion processing on flour and cereal product texture, shelf-life, and caliber. The publication discusses the effect of additions on pre- and postprocessed nutrients biopolymers; the improvement of databases and building of kingdom diagrams to demonstrate the kingdom and serve as of cereal flours ahead of, in the course of, and after construction; and the present ideas in picture research, gentle and electron microscopy, and NMR spectroscopy used to research the microstructure of cereal items. It additionally discusses the tools used to optimize processing parameters and formulations to supply end-products with fascinating sensory and textural homes; the shelf lifetime of cereal items; and the relationships among the sensory and actual features of cereal foods.
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Additional info for Characterization of cereals and flours : properties, analysis, and applications
However, sugars also contribute to the color, structure, and texture of extruded products (76–79). At the high temperatures of extrusion, reducing sugars, such as glucose, fructose, maltose, and lactose, take part in Maillard browning reactions with the amino groups of proteins and peptides. Depending on the balance of reactants and the conditions of processing, Maillard reactions contribute to the desirable color and ﬂavor of products such as breakfast cereals. Sucrose is the most commonly used and investigated sugar.
Cereal Chem 77:320–325, 2000. 38. ML Politz, JD Timpa, AR White, BP Wasserman. Non-aqueous gel permeation chromatography of wheat starch in dimethylacetamide (DMAC) and LiCl: Extrusion-induced fragmentation. Carbohydr Polym 20:91–99, 1994. 39. C Mercier, R Charbonniere, J Grebaut, JF De La Gueriviere. Formation of amylose–lipid complexes by twin-screw extrusion cooking of manioc starch. Cereal Chem 57:4–9, 1980. 40. G Kaletunc¸, KJ Breslauer. Construction of a wheat-ﬂour state diagram: application to extrusion processing.
In extrusion processes, maltodextrins cause a decrease in the melt viscosity, because they replace starch polymers, as does sucrose. Plasticization of starch systems by small-molecular-weight constituents, in addition to water, is a widely reported phenomenon (16). Barrett et al. (76) showed that the Tg of corn ﬂour extrudates, as measured by differential scanning calorimetry and by dynamic mechanical spectrometry, decreases rapidly with increasing sucrose content. Addition of sugar would be expected to reduce SME, leading to less fragmentation, higher Tg , and a crispier product.