By Krueger A.
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Extra info for Carbon Materials and Nanotechnology
Carbon is a typical main group element due to its properties. It is a nonmetal with the ground state electron conﬁguration [He]2s22p2. 5). 3 for further values). 19 The phase diagram of carbon, not including fullerenes and carbon nanotubes (© Wiley-VCH 2000). 3 Energies of ionization of carbon. 11%) and the radioactive 14C (traces). 011 g mol−1) results from this isotopic composition. 14C is employed to determine the age of archeological objects (radiocarbon dating). The stable isotope 13C is a valuable tool for molecular structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy because its nuclear-spin quantum number is I = ½.
Si → SiC → Si + Cgraphitic). Pyrolytic Carbon Depending on the manufacturing conditions, a highly parallel order of graphene layers may be obtained here. 15 psi). The product precipitates on a plain surface so that the graphene layers align with it. Thermolysis at 2000 °C and postgraphitization at 3000 °C yield a material called pyrolytic graphite that virtually matches natural graphite in its anisotropy of thermal and electrical conductivity. 14). The deviation from perfect parallel order is less than 1% here.
16 Scheme of a Kimberlite pipe. Due to the fast cooling of molten rock, carbon is conserved in the shape of diamond and conveyed to the earth’s surface as such. 17 (a) Raw diamond in parent rock (© US Geological Survey), (b) jewelry diamond in brilliant cut and (c) evolution of cut types from simple octahedral stones to brilliants. conveyor belts covered with a layer of fat. The diamond adheres to it, while other rock is carried on and discarded. Especially in large-scale industrial exploitation, there are also X-ray sorters in use.