By Lia Angela Moulopoulos, Vassilis Koutoulidis
MRI presents the easiest technique of imaging the bone marrow without delay and of non-invasively assessing its composition. basic age-related bone marrow adjustments, adjustments relating to crimson marrow reconversion, and pathological bone marrow tactics more often than not comply with convinced styles that replicate the underlying marrow alterations and will be essentially well-known on MR pictures. as well as traditional pulse sequences, complex MRI suggestions comparable to Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging depict marrow alterations on the microvascular and mobile point respectively.
This e-book offers radiologists with in-depth info at the MRI appearances of standard, irregular and handled marrow following a dependent, pattern-based process. MRI findings for numerous ailments that have an effect on the bone marrow, fairly these of a malignant nature, are offered intimately. MRI trend acceptance not just deals a scientific method of photo interpretation and analysis but in addition has prognostic implications in regards to a few illness entities. each one bankruptcy features a wealth of fine quality pictures, including Key issues summarizing an important info.
In addition to radiologists, practitioners with an curiosity in hematology and oncology will locate this textbook-atlas to be a priceless source for the most recent, clinically suitable advances in bone marrow imaging.
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Additional info for Bone Marrow MRI: A Pattern-Based Approach
A focus of fat in the center of a hypointense focal bone marrow lesion (bull’s eye sign) is characteristic of a red marrow rest as it reflects the centrifugal pattern of red to yellow marrow conversion, at cross section . An atypical hemangioma is a diagnosis applied to an incidental, solitary, hypointense focal marrow lesion, when all other diagnoses have been excluded and the patient has no known history of malignancy (Fig. 9). Other benign primary bone tumors, such as osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, and enchondroma among others, may present as hypointense foci.
2). Hyperintense foci related to fatty marrow conversion may also appear along the vertebral end plates as part of the degenerative process of an intervertebral disc (Modic b d Fig. 1 Hyperintense focal pattern, normal variant-mosaic. Hyperintense focal pattern due to multiple fatty deposits (arrows) in three different patients with a mosaic pattern of red to yellow marrow conversion. (a) Axial T1-weighted image of the pelvis of a 52-year-old woman with pelvic inflammatory disease. (b, c) Axial (b) and sagittal (c) images of the lumbosacral spine of a 58-year-old woman.
5). Foci of fat may become more confluent, alternating with smaller ill- or welldefined rests of red marrow (Fig. 6). Pattern 4: Homogeneous fatty spine (Fig. 7). This pattern is most helpful when searching for bone marrow lesions, since it facilitates their detection as hypointense foci against a “bright” background. In some cases, there may be a combination of patterns, most often 2 and 3. Pattern 4 is more frequently observed in older individuals. A. Moulopoulos, V. 1007/978-88-470-5316-8_3, © Springer-Verlag Italia 2015 25 26 3 MRI of the Normal Bone Marrow: Anatomic Sites Fig.