By John F. Kutsko
With the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple and the exile of participants of the Israelite neighborhood to the land of its enemies, whose gods have been represented as divine statues, the prophet Ezekiel confronted a problem: tips to reply to the enemies' name callings that Israel's God used to be absent, while the foreigners' gods self-evidently have been current. therefore, to invite the query, "Where is God" was once to stand a number of advanced and tangled difficulties. How is God to be represented? How is Yahweh to be differentiated from different deities? what's Yahweh's dating to Israel in exile?
Kutsko units out to respond to those questions in the subject of divine presence and shortage, relatively because it pertains to the kabod theology in Ezekiel. He indicates that God's absence turns into, for Ezekiel, a controversy for his presence and gear, whereas the presence of idols indicated their absence and impotence. Ezekiel extends this proposition right into a corollary: God's presence isn't consigned to sanctuary, for God is a sanctuary. during this regard, absence from the Temple is a message of judgment and the precursor to a message of recovery. If God can turn into a sanctuary, his presence in exile turns into a message of victory even over imperial powers. This conceptualization of Yahweh, then, finally ends up defining the ability and place of Israel's God in distinctively common phrases. during this contribution, the e-book of Ezekiel performs a valuable and formerly unappreciated position within the improvement of Israelite theology, and monotheism specifically.
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Additional resources for Between Heaven and Earth: Divine Presence and Absence in the Book of Ezekiel
Spread is 1 pica long Idolatry and Theodicy 37 27:15; 2 Kgs 19:18 (= Isa 37:19); Jer 10:3 (compare Jer 1:16; 25:6–7; 44:8); Ps 115:4; 135:15; 2 Chr 32:19; also compare Isa 2:8; Hos 14:4; and Mic 5:12. ” Another common strategy involved expressions that directly challenged the category µyhIløa” as appropriate for idols or pagan gods: h'løa” alø (Deut 32:17), laEAalø (Deut 32:21), and µyhIløa”Aalø (2 Kgs 19:18 = Isa 37:19; Jer 2:11; 5:7; 16:20; Hos 8:6). ” The authors of these texts appear to imply a degree of unease with the designation “gods,” not only because it may be confused with Yahweh, but because the existence of gods other than Yahweh was being challenged.
2, “Survey of Research of the Babylonian Inﬂuence on the Book of Ezekiel,” 35–51. On iconographic evidence of Ezekiel’s familiarity with Babylonia, esp. Ezekiel 1, see pp. 42–45. See also Othmar Keel, Jahwe-Visionen und Siegelkunst (Stuttgarter Bibelstudien 84/85; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1977) 361–83. 57. Over 130 words are found only in Ezekiel, according to Zimmerli (Ezekiel 1, 23). 58. ” 244–321; Pseudo-Ezekiel and the Original Prophecy, 123–99. 59. S. P. D. , Columbia University, 1983); see the review of studies on pp.
16 The Inquiry and Its Background Judah in his house in exile, during which he is taken (8:2) in a vision (8:3) to Jerusalem. 46 In chaps. 8–11 it appears that Ezekiel sees vivid accounts of the apostasy in Jerusalem, after which he is transported back to Babylonia (11:24). 47 Narrative elements such as these have led scholars to various conclusions. The most radical reconstructions suggest, wholly or in large part, that the oracles were not delivered in exile. As discussed earlier, C. C. e. 48 A variation of this interpretation came a year later from James Smith, who felt compelled by some of the same texts that led Torrey to his conclusion.