By Qing-Ping Zeng
This booklet discusses either the invaluable and destructive facets of NO in biology and drugs, and in addition introduces the rising discovery of artemisinin in antitumor, antibacterial an infection, anti-inflammation, and antiaging contexts. In 1992 nitric oxide (NO) was once voted “Molecule of the yr” by means of technology journal, and the invention of its physiological roles has resulted in Nobel Prize-winning paintings in neuroscience, body structure and immunology. The booklet explains why we should always preserve a steady-state NO point that's derived from neuronal or epithelial NO synthase, and keep away from the super excessive NO point caused by inducible NO synthase. The publication deals a beneficial source for scientific chemists, clinicians, biologists and all these drawn to overall healthiness and disease.
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Additional resources for Artemisinin and Nitric Oxide: Mechanisms and Implications in Disease and Health
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:98–109 Elfering SL, Sarkela TM, Giulivi C (2002) Biochemistry of mitochondrial nitric-oxide synthase. J Biol Chem 277:38079–38086 Feng LL, Yang RY, Yang XQ, Zeng XM, Lu WJ, Zeng QP (2009) Synergistic re-channeling of mevalonate pathway for artemisinin overproduction in transgenic Artemisia annua. Plant Sci 177:57–67 Finocchietto P, Barreyro F, Holod S, Peralta J, Franco MC, Mendez C, Converso DP, Estevez A, Carreras MC, Poderoso JJ (2008) Control of muscle mitochondria by insulin entails activation of Akt2-mtNOS pathway: Implications for the metabolic syndrome.
4 Conclusions ART kills cancer cells with uncertain mechanisms. Here, we report that ART can exert its antitumor activity by alkylating hemoproteins such as NOS in tumor cells. The conjugation of ART with the heme moiety of hemoproteins was 34 3 ART for Antitumor evident by monitoring the shift of absorbance from heme (A415) to ART-heme adducts (A476). Accordingly, it was observed that a transient elevation of A415 is accompanied with a synchronous burst of NO and a higher rate of survival following incubation of tumor cells with 50 μM ART.
Later, Zheng et al. (1994) and Jung (1997) determined the cytotoxicity of ART and semisynthetic analogs on tumor cells, including L-1210, P-388, A-549, HT-29, MCF-7, and KB lines. Beekman et al. (1997, 1998) also investigated the stereochemistrydependent cytotoxicity of ART and derived analogs. ART is generally well tolerated at the dose used for malarial patients. The side effects of ART are nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and dizziness. A rare but serious adverse effect is allergic reaction (Taylor and White 2004).