By Tharwat F. Tadros
Whereas at present on hand titles both concentrate on the fundamentals or on very particular subtopics, this article meets the necessity for a complete survey of surfactants and their homes, with a robust emphasis on purposes and their correlation to the basics.
the writer covers their category, actual homes, part habit, adsorption, results - comparable to wetting, spreading and adhesion - in addition to commercial functions in own care and cosmetics, prescription drugs, agrochemicals and meals items.
Professor Tadros is a widely known professional related to surfactants, with a lot event in colloid technological know-how. the following, he makes use of his commercial adventure to shut the distance among basics of surfactants and their relevance and functions in perform.
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Extra info for Applied Surfactants: Principles and Applications
5. 2 Solubility–Temperature Relationship for Surfactants This will be dealt with in detail in Chapter 3, and so only the main trends are summarized here. Many ionic surfactants show dramatic temperature-dependent solubility. The solubility may be very low at low temperatures and then increases by orders of magnitude in a relatively narrow temperature range. This phenomenon is generally denoted as the Kraﬀt phenomenon, with the temperature for the onset of increasing solubility being known as the Kraﬀt temperature.
C. at a given temperature and electrolyte concentration. c. , after which it remains virtually constant with further increases in concentration. However, other techniques such as self-diﬀusion measurements, NMR and ﬂuorescence spectroscopy can be applied. s in 1971 ; while clearly not up-to-date this is an extremely valuable reference. c. of several surface active agents to show some of the general trends . c. decreases with increasing chain length of the hydrophobic portion (alkyl group).
C. decreases by a factor of 2 for ionics (without added salt) and by a factor of 3 for nonionics on adding one methylene group to the alkyl chain. c. s than their corresponding ionic surfactants of the same alkyl chain length. Incorporation of a phenyl group in the alkyl group increases its hydrophobicity to a much smaller extent than increasing its chain length with the same number of carbon atoms. c. c. by roughly a factor of 4. 1 Properties of Solutions of Surface Active Agents Tab. 1. c. values of some surface active agents.