By Domenico Ribatti
It has been regularly accredited that angiogenesis is inquisitive about the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies, like acute and persistent leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms and a number of myeloma. the level of angiogenesis within the bone marrow has been correlated with disorder burden, diagnosis and remedy final result. Reciprocal optimistic and unfavourable interactions among tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells, specifically hematopoietic stem cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts/osteoclasts, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, T cells, macrophages and mast cells, mediated via an array of cytokines, receptors and adhesion molecules, modulate the angiogenic reaction in hematological tumors. extra lately, it's been emphasised the pro-angiogenic function of the so referred to as “vascular niche”, indicating a domain wealthy in blood vessels the place endothelial cells and mural cells similar to pericytes and gentle muscle cells create a microenvironment that has effects on the habit of numerous stem and progenitor cells, in hematological malignancies.
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Extra resources for Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenesis in Hematological Malignancies
2008). 9 Prognostic Value of Angiogenesis in Multiple Myeloma 31 Fig. 18 Double FVIII-RA (green) and tryptase ( red) confocal laser microscopy from multiple myeloma (a), and MGUS (b), bone marrow biopsy specimens. In A, a multiple myeloma vessel is lined by both endothelial cells positive for FVIII-RA and by mast cellspositive for tryptase ( arrowheads). Mast cells containing tryptase-positive granules ( arrows) are also recognizable on the abluminal side of the vessel. In B, a MGUS vessel is lined only by endothelial cells positive for FVIII-RA and is surrounded by tryptase-positive mast cells ( arrows).
Among B-cell lymphomas, the incidence of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) is 30 %, of follicular lymphoma (FL) 25 %, of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue mucosa associated lymphoma tissue (MALT lymphoma) 7 %, of chronic lymphocytic leukemia 7 %, of mantle cell lymphoma 5 %. Lymphoid tumors are generally divided into one of two categories, namely indolent lymphomas versus aggressive lymphomas, based upon on the characteristics of the disease at the time of presentation and the patients’ life expectancy if the disease is left untreated.
2002). Inhibition of autocrine or paracrine VEGFRs-mediated loops with receptor-specific antibodies suppress the growth of lymphomas by increasing tumor apoptosis and decreasing vascularization, respectively. These results confirm the role of VEGF in lymphomagenesis and support the targeting of VEGFRs as a therapeutic approaches for aggressive lymphomas. Other angiogenic growth factors may contribute to the angiogenic process and tumor progression in NHL. Among these, FGF-2 is one of the best characterized of 42 3 Angiogenesis in Lymphomas Fig.