# An Introduction to Causal Inference by Judea Pearl

By Judea Pearl

This summarizes fresh advances in causal inference and underscores the paradigmatic shifts that has to be undertaken in relocating from conventional statistical research to causal research of multivariate info. certain emphasis is put on the assumptions that underlie all causal inferences, the languages utilized in formulating these assumptions, the conditional nature of all causal and counterfactual claims, and the tools which have been constructed for the overview of such claims. those advances are illustrated utilizing a common idea of causation in accordance with the Structural Causal version (SCM), which subsumes and unifies different methods to causation, and offers a coherent mathematical starting place for the research of factors and counterfactuals. specifically, the paper surveys the advance of mathematical instruments for inferring (from a mix of knowledge and assumptions) solutions to 3 different types of causal queries: these approximately (1) the results of capability interventions, (2) chances of counterfactuals, and (3) direct and oblique results (also referred to as "mediation"). eventually, the paper defines the formal and conceptual relationships among the structural and potential-outcome frameworks and offers instruments for a symbiotic research that makes use of the powerful positive factors of either. The instruments are proven within the analyses of mediation, reasons of results, and chances of causation.

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The following definition overcomes these difficulties: Definition 2 (Identifiability (Pearl, 2000a, p. , those encoded in the diagram) would constrain the variability of those details in such a way that equality of P’s would entail equality of Q’s. When this happens, Q depends on P only, and should therefore be expressible in terms of the parameters of P. The next subsections exemplify and operationalize this notion. 2. Estimating the effect of interventions To understand how hypothetical quantities such as P(y|do(x)) or E(Y|do(x0)) can be estimated from actual data and a partially specified model let us begin with a simple demonstration on the model of Fig.

If correlation is presumed possible, it is customary to connect the two variables, UY and UX, by a dashed double arrow, as shown in Fig. 1(b). In reading path diagrams, it is common to use kinship relations such as parent, child, ancestor, and descendent, the interpretation of which is usually self evident. For example, an arrow X → Y designates X as a parent of Y and Y as a child of X. A “path” is any consecutive sequence of edges, solid or dashed. For example, there are two paths between X and Y in Fig.

6). This replacement permits the constant x to differ from the actual value of X (namely fX (z, uX)) without rendering the system of equations inconsistent, thus yielding a formal interpretation of counterfactuals in multi-stage models, where the dependent variable in one equation may be an independent variable in another. Definition 6 (Unit-level Counterfactuals – “surgical” definition, Pearl (2000a, p. 98)) Let M be a structural model and Mx a modified version of M, with the equation(s) of X replaced by X = x.