By Michael Frank Hordeski
Revised and up to date, Alternative Fuels addresses the various elements affecting our power use, together with the provision and desirability of assorted fuels—especially using hydrogen. This re-creation covers new hydrogen advancements in know-how, oil offers and new drilling concepts, most up-to-date info on hydrogen street tasks, breakthroughs in gasoline phone know-how and extremely low emissions in transportation, the most recent records on rising oil markets, strength reserves, and carbon dioxide raises.
Also incorporated is fabric on power coverage, gas offer traits, replacement situations, strength usage, sustainable strength, price research, gasoline escalation, strength and improvement, regulatory concerns, limitations to implementation, conversion platforms, garage platforms, thermodynamic potency, gas chain potency, life-cycle potency, know-how matters extracting, refining, air emission concerns, safeguard, usual fuel hydrogen gasoline, methanol, ethanol, steam reforming and gasoline cells.
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Extra info for Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen, Third Edition
For example, Butane is (CH3-CH2-CH3). This chain can be grafted by replacing a hydrogen atom with a methyl group, and we have: C3- CH2- CH- CH3 | CH3 This hydrocarbon is methylbutane. Its shorter formula is CH5C12, which is the same as pentane. Methylbutane and pentane are isomers. 15 but a different boiling point. The number of isomers increases with the number of carbon atoms (n). There are: 3 isomers when n = 5 5 isomers when n = 6 9 isomers when n = 7 and over 60 billion isomers when n = 40.
This migration may be deflected or stopped by an impervious rock layer, called an oil trap, or cap. Salt, shale, gypsum, and dense limestones form cap rocks. If an impervious cap is pierced into the oil, the liberated petroleum can gush out under the pressure of the confined gases. Table 2-7 lists the characteristics of oil pools. Table 2-7. Oil Pool Characteristics ———————————————————————————————— • Sedimentary rocks, predominantly marine • Impervious rock layer (cap rock) over the oil • Reservoir rock (porous and permeable) sandstone, limestone, contains the oil • Reservoir trap, produced by folds, faults, variations in porosity and permeability • Source rocks, shale or clay.
Some is used to supply power in the oil field or is pumped back to maintain pressure in the reservoir. The balance is sold or burned off. Natural gas recovery has increased importance, since it is used extensively in the manufacture of chemicals and as a source of gas in the home. Along with natural gas, oil fields have other products. Hydrogen sulphide is the most abundant of the impurities. A small quantity in natural gas is desirable as a warning of leakage. When large quantities are present, this sour gas is used to manufacture carbon black or is processed for sulphur recovery.