By Alfred Thayer Mahan
The background of Sea energy is basically, even though in no way completely, a story of contests among countries, of mutual rivalries, of violence usually culminating in struggle. The profound impression of sea trade upon the wealth and power of nations was once in actual fact noticeable lengthy sooner than the real rules which ruled its progress and prosperity have been detected. To safe to one's personal humans a disproportionate proportion of such merits, each attempt was once made to exclude others, both by way of the peaceable legislative tools of monopoly or prohibitory laws, or, while those failed, via direct violence. The conflict of pursuits, the offended emotions roused by way of conflicting makes an attempt hence to acceptable the bigger proportion, if now not the entire, of some great benefits of trade, and of far-off unsettled advertisement areas, resulted in wars. nonetheless, wars bobbing up from different reasons were significantly transformed of their behavior and factor by way of the keep an eye on of the ocean. for that reason the historical past of sea strength, whereas embracing in its wide sweep all that has a tendency to make a humans nice upon the ocean or by way of the ocean, is basically an army historical past; and it truly is during this point that it'll be typically, even though no longer solely, seemed within the following pages.
A examine of the army background of the prior, equivalent to this, is enjoined through nice army leaders as necessary to right principles and to the skilful behavior of battle sooner or later. Napoleon names one of the campaigns to be studied by way of the aspiring soldier, these of Alexander, Hannibal, and Caesar, to whom gunpowder was once unknown; and there's a large contract between expert writers that, whereas a few of the stipulations of battle differ from age to age with the development of guns, there are specific teachings within the college of background which stay consistent, and being, for this reason, of common software, could be increased to the rank of common rules. for a similar cause the research of the ocean heritage of the prior should be discovered instructive, via its representation of the final ideas of maritime conflict, even though the nice adjustments which were caused in naval guns via the medical advances of the earlier part century, and by way of the creation of steam because the intent power.
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Additional resources for Alfred Thayer Mahan - The Influence Of Sea Power Upon History (1660-1783)
1) —— 1. Lapeyrouse, Bonfils: Hist. de la Marine Francaise. —— Within ten years of the peace of 1788 came the French Revolution; but that great upheaval which shook the foundations of States, loosed the ties of social order, and drove out of the navy nearly all the trained officers of the monarchy who were attached to the old state of things, did not free the French navy from a false system. It was easier to overturn the form of government than to uproot a deep−seated tradition. Hear again a third French officer, of the highest rank and literary accomplishments, speaking of the inaction of Villeneuve, the admiral who commanded the French rear at the battle of the Nile, and who did not leave his anchors while the head of the column was being destroyed:— “A day was to come [Trafalgar] in which Villeneuve in his turn, like De Grasse before him, and like Duchayla, would complain of being abandoned by part of his fleet.
It has been said that in 1661, when he took office, there were but thirty armed ships, of which three only had over sixty guns. In 1666 there were seventy, of which fifty were ships of the line and twenty were fire−ships; in 1671, from seventy the number had increased to one hundred and ninety−six. In 1683 there were one hundred and seven ships of from twenty−four to one hundred and twenty guns, twelve of which carried over seventy−six guns, besides many smaller vessels. The order and system introduced into the dock−yards made them vastly more efficient than the English.
Without prying too far beneath the surface for remote and ultimate influences. Nevertheless, it must be noted that particular forms of government with their accompanying institutions, and the character of rulers at one time or another, have exercised a very marked influence upon the development CHAPTER 1. DISCUSSION OF THE ELEMENTS OF SEA POWER. 28 The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660−1783 of sea power. The various traits of a country and its people which have so far been considered constitute the natural characteristics with which a nation, like a man, begins its career; the conduct of the government in turn corresponds to the exercise of the intelligent will−power, which, according as it is wise, energetic and persevering, or the reverse, causes success or failure in a man's life or a nation's history.