By Bert B. Williams, John L. Gidley, Robert S. Schechter
SPE Monograph quantity 6. This monograph has been ready to function a easy reference for either the sector and study engineer attracted to constructing a primary knowing of the acidizing procedure and methods for designing acid remedies to extend good productiveness.
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The net result is a pore-size distribution plot (Figure 4b). After the maximum injection pressure is reached, additional pore-structure information can be obtained by monitoring the volume of mercury expelled as the conﬁning pressure is reduced (Figure 4a), termed withdrawal (Wardlaw and Taylor, 1976). We interpret the The interpretation of permeability/formation factor data begins with the one-dimensional ﬂow model shown in Figure 3b. As discussed previously, storage pores are assumed to have little impact on either electrical or ﬂuid ﬂow properties.
THE GRANULAR QUARTZ VS. CLAYSTONE GRAVITATIONAL COMPACTION CROSSOVER The porosities of gravitationally compacted granular quartz sediments and clay-rich sediments cross over each other in virtually all subsiding basins. Figure 7 shows average quartz sandstone and shale porosity vs. depth relationships from a well in the Gulf Coast. Above 2000 ft in Figure 7, clay-rich sediments have higher porosity than quartz sands. Below 2000 ft each of the two mineralogic end members continue along their own compaction gradients, and the curves diverge with increasing depth.
End-member sedimentary claystones have a signiﬁcantly lower ␣ value than the electrostatically neutral minerals. The unusually high 40–95% initial porosity of clay-rich sediments is power-law related to the log of average sediment particle size. Whole rock compaction is the volume-weighted average (rmax and ␣) of its individual mineral speciﬁc stress/strain coefﬁcients. This general mineralogic (rmax and ␣) sedimentary rock stress/strain compactional relationship has been tested in more than 300 wells in normal fault regime basins worldwide.